Did You Know

Access to health care at school significantly increases the likelihood that children in poor communities will have medical and dental checkups during the school year and significantly decreases emergency department use by their families.

David W. Kaplan, MD, MPH; Claire D. Brindis, DrPH; Stephanie L. Phibbs, MPH; Paul Melinkovich, MD; Kelly Naylor, PhD; Karin Ahlstrand, MA , 1999. "“A Comparison Study of an Elementary School-Based Health Center: Effects on Health Care Access and Use .”Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 153: 235–243.

David W. Kaplan, MD, MPH; B. Ned Calonge, MD, MPH; Bruce P. Guernsey, MSW; Maureen B. Hanrahan, BSN, MA 1998 “Managed Care and School-Based Health Centers: Use of Health Services.” Archives of Pediatric AdolescentMedicine. 152: 25–33.



Adolescents with access to school-based health care were 10 times more likely to make a mental health or substance abuse visit than those who were enrolled in a managed care system (HMO) but lacked a school-based facility.

David W. Kaplan, MD, MPH; B. Ned Calonge, MD, MPH; Bruce P. Guernsey, MSW; Maureen B. Hanrahan, BSN, MA 1998 “Managed Care and School-Based Health Centers: Use of Health Services.” Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 152: 25–33.


Among high-risk students, users of school-based health clinics are less likely to drop out of school and more likely to graduate than non-users.

Marcella T. McCord, Jonathan D. Klein, Jane M. Foy, Kate Fothergill 1993 “School-Based Clinic Use and School Performance.” Journal of Adolescent Health. 14: 91-98.


Participation in school-sited out-of-school-time programs has been shown to significantly lessen school-related disobedience.

Grossman, J.B., 2003 Student Outcomes and After-School Program Participation. Paper presented at the 2003 Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meeting, Tampa, FL.


There is some evidence that participants in school-based out-of-school-time programs “did their homework more consistently and, in some cases, achieved higher grades in school.”

Thomas J. Kane, 2004 The impact of after-school programs: Interpreting the results of four recent evaluations (Working paper). New York: William T. Grant Foundation.


Making the school a place that helps parents— with their income, employment and other needs— can improve the alienation many parents in poor communities feel toward schools in general.

Buttery, T. J. and P. J. Anderson, 1997 “Community, School and Parent Dynamics: A Synthesis of Literature and Activities.”  Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of Teacher Educators, Washington, DC.


Students’ decisions to drop out are not based simply on their experiences in high school; instead, the pathway to dropping out appears to start much earlier.

Olga Reyes, Karen L. Gillock, Kimberly Kobus, Bernadette Sanchez
2000 “A Longitudinal Examination of the Transition into Senior High School for Adolescents from Urban, Low-Income Status, and Predominantly Minority Backgrounds.” American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 519-544.

Roderick, M. R., 1995 “School Transitions and School Dropout.” In K. Wong (ed.), Advances in Educational Policy. Connecticut: JAI Press.


After-school and extracurricular programs that strengthen youth’s social skills in the middle grades can help better prepare students for the transition to high school.

Durlak, J. A. and R. P. Weissberg, 2007 The Impact of After-School Programs That Promote Personal and Social Skills. Chicago: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL).


On average, students’ GPAs drop a full letter grade between eighth and ninth grades. Students who experience this decline in GPA are by no means doomed to failure, especially if they live in neighborhoods where they can access support services. However, for students who are already struggling and lack access to help (a common scenario in low-income neighborhoods), a decline in grades during this transition makes it even harder to get on track toward graduation.

Olga Reyes, Karen L. Gillock, Kimberly Kobus, Bernadette Sanchez
2000 “A Longitudinal Examination of the Transition into Senior High School for Adolescents from Urban, Low-Income Status, and Predominantly Minority Backgrounds.” American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 519-544.

Roderick, M. R., 995 “School Transitions and School Dropout.” In K. Wong (ed.), Advances in Educational Policy. Connecticut: JAI Press.


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Students’ decisions to drop out are not based simply on their experiences in high school; instead, the pathway to dropping out appears to start much earlier.
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